Interventions turn revolution into crisis... Turkey reveals its occupational ambitions
YAHYA HABIB/ NEWS DESK
March 15 will be etched in the memory of the Syrians because it was the launch of the so-called " Syrian spring", on this day, the demonstrators in Damascus and some other provinces in the popular protests to demand better conditions, but the situation quickly transformed into military confrontations between the regime holding to power and the Opposition linked to abroad parties seeking to achieve the goals and ambitions of regional and international forces in Syria, while the Syrians paid the price with their blood.
On the threshold of the eighth year of this war, the suffering of the Syrians is seen as an album of mixed images: a government that sees all those who came out against it as a terrorist, while the Opposition lost the compass, thus terrorism marched in the background dominating vast expanses. But at the end of the album, there are happy pictures of Syrians who faced despair and the hell of war and managed to eliminate a terrorist organization whose name threatened the whole world, Daesh.
The story is known to everyone, but we will try, in its eighth year, to recount the events in short.
The beginning from Daraa... Acceleration of events, cards mixing
The beginning of February 2011, when a number of citizens took to the streets of Syria, calling "the Syrian people cannot be humiliated", the motives of this strange fervor were divided between the talk of a security officer insulting a citizen in the street and a desire to catch what they called "the Arab Spring" train.
In March of that year, the Syrian security forces arrested a group of children who wrote on the wall of their school the words "the people want to overthrow the regime" in the city of Daraa, following which protests called on the regime to punish the security elements.
The issue did not stop at this point as the protests escalated to besiege the regime forces in the city of Daraa, which was called "the cradle of the revolution."
In spite of all these rapid developments, most Syrians felt as if watching TV series whose director did not put up a number of episodes. The regime's SANA agency describes the demonstrators with agents and saboteurs and reports of terrorist attacks, while the Opposition activists insist that what is happening is peaceful demonstrations and denounce the regime's violent response.
It did not take long for the demonstrations to spread to other areas of Syria, so that the division would be clear within the Syrian society between an opponent calling it "revolution" and a loyalist who calls it "conspiracy" to spread this division. Similarly, the world divided into supporters of the regime and opponents to it: the Gulf states, Turkey and the West welcomed and supported the protests, while Russia and China supported the regime and protected it by veto in the Security Council until the Russian military support.
The Syrian events accelerated to the end of 2011 and the United Nations announced that the number of victims reached more than 5000 people, with which regional and international interests also began to emerge. Turkey was the spearhead in that. In public, it worked to support the establishment of the so-called National Council in Cairo, while behind the scenes, it passed terrorists into Syria.
Cards mixed in the Syrian arena where the Syrian opposition is establishing a council in Cairo, and al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri is calling for jihad in Syria. The tanks are patrolling the Syrian streets, the planes are bombarding Homs, and the United States and the West are launching a diplomatic war against the regime, closing their embassies and the Arab Gulf supporting the so-called Free Army.
The war moved to Damascus in conjunction with the escalation in Idlib to declare the so-called Free army that controlled more than forty percent of Syria, while the regime denies that it is doing something wrong and declares that it is dealing with a Western-Arab conspiracy.
With the beginning of July 2012, the international movement on the Syrian crisis escalated as the West intensified its pressure on the regime. Russia and China vetoed against sanctions, US officials announced the existence of a chemical weapon in Syria and the International Red Cross described what was going on as a civil war. By the end of the year, Iran admitted that Iranian Revolutionary Guards exist in Syria.
The beginning of the year 2013 witnessed a rise in the proportion of victims, where the death toll reached 80 thousand, including a massacre by Jabhit al-Nusra mercenaries leaving about 200 people in the countryside of Latakia, in addition to the victims of a chemical attack by the regime on Sheikh Maksoud neighborhood in Aleppo; moreover, Daesh appeared in the Syrian arena in 2013.
Regional endeavors to restore old glory with new plans
From Geneva to Vienna to Munich, the great powers held several meetings on the Syrian situation, in an attempt by all the countries involved in the Syrian crisis to find a solution that suits their interests. The revolution turned from revolution against the regime to a regional crisis, which supported armed and terrorist groups to revive their hopes of restoring Ottoman glory, to Iran, which put all its weight in Syria to protect the regime in order to maintain its hopes of establishing the Shiite Crescent.
Turkey opened its airports to receive terrorists from all over the world and facilitated their passage into Syrian territory. It also turned its borders into crossings for arms transfers to terrorists and mercenaries in Syria and provided all forms of financial, morale and medical support. As for Iran, it mobilized Shiites wherever they were and sent them to Syria to fight alongside the Baathist regime.
The situation got even more complicated when this crisis turned into a crisis at the international level in which Russia, which put all its weight in Syria and controlled the official political decision of the Baathist regime, and the American party, which did not put all its weight to solve the crisis, worked during the years of the first crisis to postpone the solution.
Daesh controls vast expanses
In the summer of 2014, mercenaries took control of large areas of Syria and Iraq. At the beginning of June, they took control of the Iraqi city of Mosul and in the same month seized the city of Raqqa and declared it the capital of its alleged caliphate on June 29. It also controlled the vast majority of Deir ez-Zor. Besides, it was present in Aleppo, Idlib, Hama, and Damascus countryside and a number of other Syrian regions, thus occupying almost half the area of Syria, while the presence of the forces of the Baathist regime was limited to the main cities only, while the People's and Women's Protection Units undertook the task of preserving the Rojava three cantons which were announced in January 2014: al-Jazeera, Afrin and Kobani.
The United States enters the Syrian territory
Turkey's role in Syria from the beginning has been negative, with terrorists entering Syria and supporting them with weapons, leading to complete dissolution of the Opposition, terrorist groups growing up and others splitting alongside Turkish mercenaries, prompting the United States to turn its attention from fighting the regime to fighting terrorism.
On March 4, 2015, a group of 50 fighters equipped with all modern weapons from the Brigade 51st arrived after receiving training under the US program to train the armed opposition to Syria via the Bab al-Salama crossing in Azaz. Members of this group were killed within a few days, while others escaped and surrendered themselves to IS mercenaries with their weapons.
During the war against terrorism, the People's Protection Units and the Women's Protection Units were able to prove their worth in fighting Daesh. After announcing the formation of the International Coalition, the coalition forces began providing air support to the People's and Women's Protection Units, especially in the battle of Kobani. Even after Syrian Democratic Forces' establishment in October 2015, the United States participated with its military advisers in Manbij liberation from Daesh mercenaries, and expanded the support of the International Coalition to the Syrian Democratic Forces until the liberation of the city of al-Raqqa, the capital of the alleged Caliphate in October 17, 2017.
Russia in Syria officially
After the regime's forces and Iranian support failed to defeat the mercenaries' groups supported by Turkey and the Gulf, the two countries signed an agreement in August 2015 granting the right to Russian military forces to use the Hamimim base at all times without charge and indefinitely.
Starting in September 2015, Russia reinforced its military presence in Syria, with 21 Sukhoi-25 launched a land attack, as well as 12 Sukhoi-24 interceptors, six medium-range Sukhoi-34, and four Sukhoi-30 multi-role in addition to 15 helicopters (including MI-24 Hind), and began to target Daesh mercenaries and Jabhit al-Nusra and groups supported by regional forces.
Turkey occupies the territory of Syria
As a result of the negative Turkish role in the Syrian crisis in terms of supporting terrorism and the use of refugees' paper against Europe, Turkey lost the American and European support on the one hand and at the same time was subjected to Russian pressure to eliminate its mercenaries in Syria, thus ending its presence there, and intervened directly in an effort to eliminate the Kurds and the joint administration sample in Rojava.
Therefore, it had to sacrifice the groups it had supported since the beginning of the crisis and the cities that were controlled by them. It ordered its mercenaries to leave Aleppo and hand it over to the regime's forces based on an agreement with Russia to allow it to occupy part of the northern Syrian territory extending from Jarablus in the north to the town of Azaz to the west, and occupied the Syrian al-Bab city in an agreement with Daesh mercenaries, and also occupied Afrin in a deal with Russia in exchange for handing over al-Ghouta to the Syrian regime.
Turkey tried to expand east of al-Bab to occupy the city of Manbij, liberated by the Syrian Democratic Forces from Daesh mercenaries in August 2016, but the United States deployed its forces in the northern areas of Manbij and Russia deployed its forces west and south of Manbij to enter the points of contact between the Turkish mercenaries on the one hand and Syrian Democratic Forces on the other hand, which foiled the Turkish plan.
Now, with the entry of the eighth year, we see in the field that the regime forces control about 60% of the Syrian territory, while Syrian Democratic Forces protect about 30% of the territory of Syria, while Turkey occupies with its mercenaries and Hayat Tahrir al-Sham (al-Qaeda's branch in the Levant Jabhit al-Nusra) an area of 10% of Syria.
With the advent of the eighth year, what was said to be an opposition is now subject to Turkey and moving under its directions and whatever it wants and seeks to implement its occupational agenda in Syria. In contrast, it is not possible to talk about a regime which has its will, because the regime is divided between loyalists following the orders of Iran and others under Russia and its leader, Vladimir Putin, while the Syrians are the only ones who pay the price of the conflicting interests of the forces intervening in Syria and the regime and Turkey-affiliated opposition, as both want power and nothing else.
Tomorrow: Interferers' conflicting interests; N, E Syria people eliminate Daesh geographically