11 years have passed on the Syrian conflict; several facts have been changed in the map of the military and political struggle for power, where the Syrian Revolution diverted of its purpose, after turning into the areas under control of the Syrian regime to areas led the war, and those who called themselves opposition have transformed into mercenary groups that obey the orders of regional powers.
The Syrians monitored the changes that took place in Tunisia and Egypt and the results achieved by the demonstrations in those countries. On March 15, 2011, the Syrians wanted a spark from the fire that the Tunisian seller Bouazizi lit in his body to their country, but they did not know at the time that this spark would burn the Syrian body, as these protests quickly turned into acts of violence with the arrest of dozens of Syrian security forces. Demonstrators and imprisonment.
The incident of some children and boys, in the Daraa Governorate in southern Syria, 10 years ago, writing expressions against Damascus, which was the spark of the Syrian Revolution, on which has been prepared for more than 40 years to be launched, no one knows that the demonstrations that Daraa city witnessed will turn into a drastic war that will continue for years.
Gradually, the protests have swept all the governorates and cities of Syria, and the slogans of “toppling the regime and the departure of al-Assad” appeared, and with them armed battalions began to form opposing the government of Damascus, coinciding with the defection of a large number of government forces.
Bashar al-Assad described the groups that took up arms as "terrorists funded by outside powers," and vowed to "crush them."
Turkish intentions are hidden
In spite of, the drastic war has escalated, where many hard -liner factions have been formed that supported by external parties, as well as to enter foreign gangs' elements to Syrian lands from all over the world, by supporting Turkish State.
The Syrian politician Hussein al-Azzam referred to the early and influential Turkish intervention on the course of the Syrian crisis, saying: “It had a bad and devastating effect from the first day, because the facts show that the intention was to work to divert the revolution from its course, and the concrete evidence showed that the Turkish regime contained terrorist factions, with evidence of no doubt accepts and it has opened its doors wide for immigration to and from there to the rest of the world, not to mention its occupation of large swaths of Syrian territory, and its threats are still present.
In his turn, the director of the Kurds Without Borders Center, Kadar Berry, said: “At the beginning of the "Arab Spring", revolutions began in Tunisia, Libya, then Egypt and Yemen, as well as the matter in Syria, neighboring countries started in feeling the hazard to its transfer, in particular Turkey and others countries, Iran also, on which started from the first moment with the support of al-Assad regime.
He added, "Turkey moved in an attempt to control this revolution and began to distort the revolution from its true, peaceful course, which all Syrians of all classes and sects saw as their revolution."
Berry continued, saying: “Turkey, with the support of Qatari money in particular, began to divert this revolution from its course, and from the beginning they began to Islamize it, then they began militarizing it and joined it with establishing of a global terrorist force, specifically the terrorist al-Qaeda organization, all with the support of the global terrorist organization, the Muslim Brotherhood Organization in order to control it. The course of things in Syria, their goal was not to bring about change in Syria or the slogans of the Syrian revolution. Rather, their most goal was how to control the government in Damascus, and it is still up to the moment that this is their thinking. "
According to the director of the Kurd Without Borders Center, "Turkey has exploited the Syrian war for its benefit in order to serve Turkey's interest in achieving its ambitions, this matter is not hidden from anyone, and this is what the Turkish politicians themselves declared, so they talked about their ambitions in Syria, specifically the fertile and benevolent areas, and their map indicates (Misak-ı Millî) charter. And the map that is being distributed by the Turks from Aleppo through the entire border strip and northeastern Syria into Iraq in Kirkuk and Mosul, including the bulk of Southern Kurdistan by annexing it to Turkey.
With the beginning of 2012, the Arab League unanimously proposed a new initiative to solve the crisis in Syria, which requires that the so-called opposition begin a dialogue with Damascus to form a national government, provided that Bashar al-Assad later hand over his full powers to his deputy in cooperation with this government to end the crisis.
The so-called Syrian National Council, which was run from Turkey, welcomed the initiative, but the Syrian government rejected it.
In March of the same year, Damascus directed its military arsenal to Homs and attacked the Baba Amr neighborhood and declared control over it after fierce fighting that lasted nearly 26 days, while Colonel Riad al-Asaad, commander of the so-called Free Syrian Army, announced that his soldiers had carried out a “tactical” withdrawal from the neighborhood after It was devastated and many victims fell.
However, in July the Syrian crisis took another turn after Damascus TV announced the killing of Defense Minister Dawood Rajiha and his deputy Assef Shawkat, and Hassan Turkmani, deputy president of the republic, in an explosion targeting the Syrian National Security building in the Rawda neighborhood of Damascus. Directly, a number of officials were appointed instead of those who were killed in the bombing, and the Damascus Forces Command issued a statement broadcasted on state television, saying, “This cowardly terrorist act will only increase the armed forces’ men’s determination to eradicate the remnants of terrorist gangs."
Armed groups have seized many regions and cities in Syria, including most parts of Aleppo, the economic capital of Syria and the second largest city in the country.
On the other hand, Iran increased its support for the Damascus government forces. However, this did not change anything, as the armed groups arrived in the center of the capital, Damascus, and near the Republican Palace.
Where is the "Syrian opposition"?
Day after day, there is no longer the so-called Syrian opposition on the ground, as militant groups such as Jabhat al-Nusra (now Hayat Tahrir al-Sham) and ISIS/ Daesh have taken control of the battlefield.
In this context, the Syrian politician Hussein al-Azzam says: "The Syrian revolution has prolonged, increased complexity and produced more aggravation, including the Syrian opposition, which began in the first months of the revolution, and the opposition crisis deepened with the emergence of new and increasing names of bodies that are difficult to enumerate and know their orientations, in addition to defining their true role in the revolution. "
He pointed out that the so-called opposition is divided because it pursues regional or external agendas that implement its whims and desires at the expense of Syrian blood, and added: “The opposition is merely a tool in the hands of those regimes that have been implementing their accounts on Syrian soil and at the expense of Syrian blood. In the true sense, it is either religiously extremist or saturated with a chauvinistic mind. "
In his turn, the director of the Kurds Without Borders Center, Kadar Berry, said: “There was no real Syrian opposition. There were opposition persons outside and opposition persons inside, there was no real meaning for the opposition as a body and as an organization with the exception of the terrorist organization, the Muslim Brotherhood Organization, that is why the external interference produced several oppositions, and then the issue of buying receivables also led to the presence of opposition affiliated with certain parties, specifically here Turkey has a major role in this matter and also the exclusion of the patriots and away from mentioning the names there were opposition figures but they were removed from the Syrian opposition and all this because they did not support the ideas and concepts of the Muslim Brotherhood.
He added, "All of these platforms, each of them separately, did not represent the Syrians. The majority of these are just people who met in a specific country and were supported by a certain party and announced a body and political structure. Most of them are people, as I mentioned, there is no one representing them on the ground, but the absence of the true form of opposition is." Whoever made these people, of course, with the external support they received, is to say nominally that they represent the Syrian people. "
ISIS/ Daesh is increasing its presence
In the summer of 2014, ISIS/Daesh mercenaries took control of large areas of Syria and Iraq, as it took control of the Iraqi city of Mosul at the beginning of June and in the same month the city of al-Raqqa and declared it the capital of his alleged caliphate on June 29, as well as the vast majority of Deir-ez-Zor Governorate, in addition due to its presence in Aleppo, Idlib, Hama, Rural Damascus and a number of other Syrian regions, and thus it occupies nearly half of the area of Syria.
The Damascus forces collapsed this year, and the armed groups affiliated with the regional powers, especially the mercenaries of Jabhat al-Nusra and some groups affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood supported by Turkey and Qatar, advanced and took control of large areas of Aleppo, Idlib, Hama, Daraa, Homs, and Quneitra. The presence of Damascus forces was limited to the main cities only.
Russia intervenes to support Damascus
During that period, the data began to indicate that the Damascus government was heading towards the expected collapse, and Damascus felt a real danger, and Russia demanded to intervene, which began its direct intervention in the fall of 2015 after it waited for the Damascus government to reach the brink of collapse to impose its conditions on it, and with this intervention soon the advance of the armed groups was halted due to the Russian air strikes.
Regional interventions to restore old glories and implement modern plans
From Geneva to Vienna through Munich, Astana and Sochi, the regional and global powers intervening in Syria held many meetings on the Syrian situation, in an effort by each of the intervening countries to find a solution compatible with their interests, so the revolution turned from a revolution against tyranny to a regional crisis that the countries exploiting Syria attacked to preserve on its interests from Turkey, which supported armed and terrorist groups to revive its hopes of restoring Ottoman glories, to Iran, which placed all its weight in Syria to protect Damascus in order
Turkey has opened its airports to receive terrorists from all over the world and facilitated their passage to the Syrian territories. It has also transformed its borders into crossings from which weapons, terrorists and mercenaries flow to Syria, and has provided all forms of material, moral and medical support to them. As for Iran, it mobilized the Shiites, wherever they were, and sent them to Syria to fight on the side of the Damascus government.
The situation became more complicated when this crisis turned into a crisis at the international level in which Russia, which placed all its potential in Syria and controlled the official political decision of the government, and the American side, which did not put all its potential to solve the crisis and worked in the first years of the crisis to postpone the resolution and the solution.
In this context, Hussein al-Azzam says: “These conferences, the most important of which is Geneva, and what Resolution 2,254 was issued may lead to achieve of the aspiration of the Syrian people if the positive conditions are met with the participation of all parties concerned with the Syrian crisis, including the Autonomous Administration, because any solution to the Syrian crisis without the participation of the Autonomous Administration will be incomplete. And not satisfied with the conditions of the crisis. "
In his turn, Kadar Berry said: “All the meetings that have taken place and will take place in the future will be doomed to failure because quite simply certain groups of the Syrian people are excluded, a large part of the Syrian people and some Syrian lands do not have representatives in those meetings, and specifically we are talking about the Kurds and the Syrian Democratic Forces. are removed from meetings. "
Another path to the crisis
On the other hand, and despite the tragedies and the lack of hope among the Syrians, the People's Protection Units and Women's Protection Units YPG, YPJ had undertaken the task of preserving the three cantons announced in January 2014, namely the cantons of Al-Jazeera, Afrin and Kobani.
Since the beginning of the Syrian crisis, the United States of America has searched for Syrian factions opposed to fighting Damascus in order to train and rehabilitate it, but the growth of terrorist groups, the occurrence of defections among the groups that trained them, the joining of some to the ranks of the terrorists, and the joining of others to the groups affiliated with Turkey, the American interest has shifted from fighting the regime to fighting terrorism.
On March 4, 2015, a group of 50 fighters equipped with all types of modern weapons arrived from the 51st Brigade, after receiving training within the framework of the American Program for Training of the Armed Opposition, to Syria via the Bab al-Salameh crossing in the city of Azaz, elements of this group were killed within a few days, while others fled and surrendered to ISIS mercenaries with their weapons.
During the war against terrorism, the YPG, YPJ were able to prove their competence in fighting ISIS/ Daesh. Therefore, after the announcement of the formation of the International Coalition, the International Coalition Forces began to provide air support to YPG, YPJ, especially in the Battle of Kobani in September 2014, to continue this support thereafter until the announcement of the formation of the Syrian Democratic Forces SDF in October 2015, as the United States prepared with military advisors to liberate Manbij from ISIS mercenaries and the expansion of the International Coalition's support for the Syrian Democratic Forces until the announcement of the liberation of the city of al-Raqqa, the alleged capital of the caliphate on October 17, 2017, and the complete elimination of ISIS after the liberation of al-Baghouz on March 23, 2019.
Kadar Berry says about this: “North and East Syria or the Kurds in the Syrian issue and since the first signs of distorting the Syrian crisis have taken the third line and practiced it in an ideal way in defending themselves and managing their areas even in a narrow way, and after the terrorists tried to control the areas of the third line or on the newly emerging administration has begun to liberate their lands. "
He added, "The success of these forces in defeating the terrorists had attracted the attention of the world and the International Coalition. The Syrian Democratic Forces SDF have proven their success and convinced the world that they are a force that can liberate the land and defend Syrians without a specific identity. They are the only ones who seek to be a united Syria and they are the most suitable for the Syrian people, in establishing decentralization Syria, far away from dictatorship and terrorism."
He explained that all the steps and actions taken by the Syrian Democratic Forces and convincing them to the world, actually had attracted attention to this experience, and said: “Of course, through our follow-up and communication with the Syrian brothers in other regions, everyone hopes that there will be administrations as well as the Autonomous Administration in Northern and Eastern Syria. all hopes that they will have forces like the Syrian Democratic Forces to defend them, neither terrorist forces nor forces that want to kill the Syrian people. This experience has proven successful in comparison with the general Syrian situation. That is, regardless of the shortcomings, defects, or criticisms directed at this administration, but it is within the Syrian case and despite its short life. It is considered the best and the best in all of Syria. "
Russian-Turkish consensus at the expense of the Syrians
After Turkey shot down a Russian Su-24 warplane on November 24, 2015, Russian President Vladimir Putin said that the Russian plane was shot down over Syria, 4 kilometers from the border with Turkey. He described the downing of the plane as a "stab in the back from the terrorists' partners."
After a break that lasted more than half a year during which Bashar al-Assad and his supporters, referring to the Russians, were described as criminals, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan apologized for the plane being shot down and expressed his sadness and wished that this incident would not be repeated, adding that “the downing of the Russian plane was not intentional and we did not know it. Russian plane "Thus, Erdogan sided with the Russians and wanted to achieve his ambitions in Syria from the Russian gate, while Russia sought to exploit Turkey to stop the support provided to its affiliated groups, which would enable it to strengthen Damascus.
At the end of 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced from Japan that he had agreed with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on the Syrian peace talks, and said that they had agreed to continue the talks in the Kazakh capital of Astana.
On January 23, 2017, the first Astana meeting began, between the intervening states in Syria and the occupiers of their lands (Turkey, Russia and Iran), and these parties agreed on the so-called De-escalation zones, legitimizing the Russian and Iranian intervention in the Syrian situation as well as the Turkish occupation of the Syrian lands.
Turkey took advantage of this agreement in order to occupy new parts of the Syrian territories in Idlib, and in March 2018, Turkey, with Russian complicity, occupied the Afrin region, and its attacks caused the displacement of more than 300,000 residents of the region.
In 2019, the Turkish occupation launched new attacks on northern and eastern Syria and occupied the cities of "Serêkaniyê/ Ras-Al-Ain and Girê Spi /Tal-Abyed". This attack, which occurred in collusion with the United States under Donald Trump's administration, also caused the displacement of more than 200 thousand additional people.
On the Astana meetings, Kadar Berry said: “The danger of Astana in particular comes from the fact that it brings together the trio who had the upper hand in destroying Syria (Russia, Turkey and Iran). These three parties met with the knowledge that there is a complete contradiction between them, the three each separately. it wanted Syria to be her own, and each had its own ambitions in Syria. "
He explained that "Russia wants a politically paralyzed Syria and a military under its command, while it is exploiting all the resources of Syria. Likewise, it is with regard to Iran, which it wanted and announced that it wanted to control four Arab capitals. It wants the line of connection to the Shiite crescent, which Iran aspires to, and the same is true for Turkey."
Berry referred to the failure of the ambitions of the three parties in Syria, and said: “The failure of their ambitions in Syria was due to the presence of the Syrian Democratic Forces and the presence of the International Coalition that found in the Syrian Democratic Forces the only organized force capable of deterring terrorism. Among them, they talked about the Syrian issue, or as they call it the Syrian cake, for this was their meeting, so they imagine a repressive dictatorial regime in Turkey, as well as a bloody regime that believed in the mandate of the jurist and the Russian, where Putin transformed Russia from a federal republic to Caesarea.
Heavy human and economic losses
As the Syrian crisis enters its tenth year, the tragedy and crises of the Syrians have worsened, as the devaluation of the Syrian pound and the lack of livelihoods continue in the areas of the Damascus government, and some areas are still monitoring the movements of the deal countries, most notably Russia and Turkey.
A report entitled "A very high price will be paid" prepared by World Vision, which works in the field of humanitarian relief, and Frontier Economics, revealed the enormity of the human and economic losses of the Syrian conflict.
According to the report, the war has claimed the lives of 600,000 Syrians, knowing that among these dead, 55,000 are children, and the fighting caused the displacement of about 12 million people, whether inside or outside Syria, a number equivalent to half of the country's population.
In addition to the loss of life, thousands of children have been deprived of education, housing, security, health care, and their families.
The report estimated the economic cost of the conflict at about one trillion and 200 billion dollars, which is equivalent to the budget of the entire European Union for ten years.
Many factors and international decisions have deepened the suffering of Syrians, such as the "Caesar Law", which provides for the freezing of reconstruction aid to Syria, and the prohibition of exporting or investing in any goods to Syria, in addition to deals that include oil and gas products.
Former US President Donald Trump signed the Caesar Law in January 2020, and it became effective in June of the same year.
Efforts to paint a dark Syrian future
Despite this, the countries interfering in the Syrian crisis continue to play their negative role and try to achieve their interests, conclude agreements between them and try by various means to achieve their goals, and in this context at the beginning of this March, a meeting was held in the Qatari capital Doha that brought together the foreign ministers of Russia, Turkey and Qatar. The three parties agreed once again to be hostile to the Syrian people.
Kadar Berry, said: “In recent days, the invisible force that was supporting these parties came out, namely Qatar, which went out into the arena in the last meeting between Russia and Turkey. Are the ambitions of the Muslim Brotherhood?"
At the end of his speech, Kadar Perry said: "The ambitions were clear. They are trying to reach with the Russian who controls the political decision in Syria in order for the Muslim Brotherhood to have a stake in power in Syria and this is what they are planning for now and they are targeting the SDF because they have the real project for Syria and the alternative of all these terrorists. "
Although 10 years have passed since the Syrian crisis, there is no solution is looming. And it seems that the Syrians' suffering will continue for years to come.