On January 21 this year marks the seventh anniversary of the establishment of the Autonomous Administration in Al-Jazeera region, which is considered the first administration formed in north and east Syria to rule the region after the Syrian revolution that began in the spring of 2011 deviated from its course and turned into serving the agendas of the regional forces does not want good for the Syrian people.
In this two-part dossier, we will discuss the Autonomous Administration project, and its transformation to become the model that is being followed. in the first part, we will deal with Autonomous Administration principles, the circumstances that called for the birth of this project, the stages of its development and its transformation into a model.
Democratic Autonomous Administration
DAA is an expression of the democratic nation’s philosophy of leader Abdullah Ocalan, and it is the organizational structure through which society communicates the state of having decision and will, to manage itself by itself and manage its affairs, unlike the system of central authority.
In his "Freedom Sociology", Leader Ocalan says: "If a democratic nation is a soul, then Democratic Autonomous Administration DAA is its body." He stressed that the Autonomous Administration is not based on the principle of one nation, one geography, and even one religion, but rather on the basis of different peoples and societies and on the foundations of democracy, and this is a transgression of the mentality of the nation state.
Leader Ocalan adds about the Autonomous Administration: "In the system of DAA, what is important is the will to manage society, Society facilitates the duties of the central state and manages itself by itself, and I say about it, that the center hands over its duties to society, because in DAA, there is no anti-state presence.
Accordingly, Ocalan asserts that "Autonomous Administration is a method of administration outside the framework of the state, in which peoples and societies manage their affairs outside the state's circle," It differs in the content and philosophy of administration from the systematic method of self-government because the authorities of self-government in a specific region are a self-administrative system that follows the central government and takes a form within the state, not within society.
Democratic Autonomous Administration principles
In the Autonomous Administration, the established system moves away from the nation-state, and guarantees the rights of the nation by transforming the nationalities present within that nation into democratic nations that accept others, and participate alongside them in the administration of various civil society organizations, to give them diversity and difference, and to make room for all segments of society in the administration.
2- The common homeland:
This concept is adopted as the basis for any democratic solution, as the homeland is for all components of all nationalities and sects, and contributes to the consolidation of brotherhood and unity away from the domination of one party at the expense of the other and denying the existence of the rest of the components.
3- The Democratic Republic:
This principle means striving for the system to be away from the nation-state and compatible with an approved democratic system, in order to work on building entity that includes all components in a human rights and democratic manner without imposing any national, ideological or religious character.
4- Democratic Constitution:
According to this principle, work is done on drafting a constitution with the participation of all components of society. It is distinguished by the peculiarity of making the system effective for providing expertise and experiences to the community, and constitutes a sound ground for the cohesion of the two parties, "society and Autonomous Administration system."
5- The democratic solution:
This principle takes the democratization of civil society as its basis, looking for an effective democratic system in the structure of society instead of building a new state, whether by re-habilitating the system of society that was a form of the state, or by restructuring the existing state system, and this requires a democratic constitution in order to serve society is more than the state, and to form a kind of interdependence between institutions and society away from sharing power, and paves the way for the development and strengthening of democratic forces and the entire society.
6- Unity of individual and collective rights and freedoms:
This principle comes to give the individual his rights, freedoms and application strength, and to achieve his rights within the group, without isolating him from his collective rights, and this principle is based on the premise that freedoms and rights cannot be achieved without gatherings and individuals.
7- ideological independence and freedom:
AA's project depends on ideological emancipation, and getting rid of dominant ideologies, relying on the ideology of freedom, because it believes that without resorting to ideological emancipation, it is difficult to succeed in the democratization process, which may fall under the control of a dominant ideology.
8- The dialectic of history and the present:
It relies in this principle on the right assessment of historical events and the stages of their progression in the first degree, and to make desired change relying on the real history, taking advantage of realistic studies of history in relation to the lived issues, to come up with solutions, and consider history as a primary source for drawing strength, and working on establishing Social Memory to Overcome the Damage of Capitalist Modernity.
9- Ethics and Conscience:
AA considers that principle is very important, which depends on the conscience and take it as a basis in every step towards democratization, because democracy cannot be implemented without observing conscience, and society can only be protected through the movement of activating the social conscience, so that it can rise the role of achieving justice in society, and bringing society to an ethical and political society.
The Self -Protection in the Autonomous Administration is a sacred right to confront the oppression and exploitation resulting from capitalist modernity, and it considers that there is an urgent need to find solutions to the problems of self-protection of all components of the people from individuals and groups, and considers that the societies' lack of a defense system paves the way for slavery and brings about ethnic genocide.
The conditions that led to the establishment of the Autonomous Administration model
The popular uprising in March 2011, which started to demand freedom and democracy, quickly turned into an armed struggle between two parties (the regime and the opposition) for power by relying on regional and international powers, but in Rojava regions, the components that live side by side came out with a different vision. Both parties are in the Syrian equation.
In this context, the co-chair of the Executive Council in the Autonomous Administration of Al-Jazeera region, Talaat Yunus, says: “Our different vision was due to the mentality that the two parties possessed aiming at power, and the vision of the two parties (the regime and those who called themselves the opposition) did not differ, and this is what disappointed the Syrian people in two parties. "
Yunus stressed that the mentality of the two parties is still continuing despite the passage of 10 years of the crisis, explaining that this clearly shows in the absence of representation of the true will of the Syrian people aiming at freedom and democracy.
Yunus indicated that the Rojava peoples' vision of the Syrian crisis, and their reliance on the Autonomous Administration project to manage the region, was the most correct vision if the regions of northern and eastern Syria were compared with other areas under the control of the Damascus government, the Turkish occupation areas and the so-called Syrian coalition.
The results of a revolution
This vision led to the birth of the Autonomous Administration project as a framework and a new model for peoples to manage their own affairs, and to rule their regions far from any internal conflict, and to preserve the co-existence of the various components, with ignoring the considerations of religion, sectarian, ethnic or national.
The Autonomous Administration came as a result of the revolution of July 19, 2012, which started its first spark in Kobani, in which the Kurds took upon themselves to lead the revolution in the region along with the rest of the Arab, Syriac and other components.
In this context, Talaat Yunus says: “There was a need for a democratic project that represented the will of the people, and there was a need for a democratic transformation based on the will of societies to manage themselves, to get rid of the central national system, and the participation of all sects and components in decision-making, and to transform the country's administration into a decentralized system."
According to the social contract of Autonomous Administration, the goal is to achieve justice, freedom and democracy in accordance with the principle of environmental balance and equality without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, creed, sect or gender, and aims to reach the political and moral fabric of democratic society to its function of mutual understanding and co-existence within pluralism, and respect The principle of the right of peoples to self-determination, ensuring the rights of women and children, ensuring self-protection and legitimate defense, and respecting freedom of religion and belief.
In this project that is derived from the ideology of the democratic nation, the peoples of the region took a third approach to it, as they did not support the ruling regime or those who called themselves the opposition.
The project began in the form of a phased administration for the region, in conjunction with the first anniversary of the July 19 revolution, in which the Rojava People Council and the Kurdish National Council in Syria agreed to adopt the project, as well as after the approval of the representatives of the other components, but the parties of the so-called Kurdish National Council withdrew in the stages The last before the administration's announcement, without stating any reason.
Stages of development
After the announcement of the first Autonomous Administration in Northern and Eastern Syria in Al-Jazeera region, the project began to expand to be announced in various other regions in the north and east of the country, as the Autonomous Administration was announced in Kobani on the 27th of the same month, followed by the announcement of the administration of Afrin on the 29th of the same month.
Under the social contract, the peoples of the Democratic Autonomous Administration regions rejected the concept of a nationalist, military and religious state, and centralized administration and central government, and were open to forms of harmony with the traditions of democracy and pluralism, so that all social groups, cultural, ethnic and national identities could express themselves through their organizations, and respect the Syrian borders and charters Human rights and maintaining civil and global peace.
A model for ruling NE, Syria
And this model began to be adopted and applied in other different regions of northern and eastern Syria, after the Syrian Democratic Forces had liberated it from ISIS mercenaries, and these departments bore different names such as civil councils and administrations, starting from the city of Manbij, passing through al-Tabqa and al-Raqqa, and reaching Deir-ez-Zor.
With the introduction of the Autonomous Administration as a model for resolving the Syrian crisis and the need for coordination between the Autonomous Administration, councils and civil administrations formed in NE, Syria, and to remove the obstacles that seemed to obstruct the people as a result of the lack of coordination, on September 6, 2018, it announced the formation of an Autonomous Administration in North and East Syria, whose mission coordination between departments and standardization of decisions.