The ancient historical city known as "Hierapolis"
The ancient historical city of Manbij is known by several names including: Heirapolis, Nabouge, Nabejo, Addisa, Lita Ashur, where the ancient city included many archaeological sites that extend to long periods of time, such as the Temple of Hera dating back to the ancient Greek period before the stage of Alexander the Great at the heart of the city in the Acropol, the temple of Atrgatis at the western end of the city of Manbij, and many sites are classified within the city of Manbij, including: the Syriac Church in the northern district of the city of Manbij, and the rocky hill in the eastern district, and the site that was termed the "catacombs" in the southern section of the city.
Establishing the Directorate of Antiquities in Manbij city and its countryside
The Directorate of Antiquities was established in the city of Manbij and its countryside in July 25, 2017, after the expulsion of ISIS mercenaries and liberation of the city, where the Directorate began to uncover archaeological sites in the city and the countryside, with the aim of documenting these sites, and conducting studies, research and protection.
What is the site called the "catacombs"?
From the archaeological sites documented by the expert in the Directorate of Antiquities in Manbij and its countryside Abdul Wahab Sheikho, is the site of the catacombs in the southeastern neighborhood of the city, the site of the "catacombs" contains a natural museum of antiquities, and talks about an important stage in the history of this great city, it is the stage of the secret call to Christianity."
What are the most prominent archaeological sites on the Euphrates bank?
Sheikho stated that the Euphrates bank includes many archaeological sites, including: Shash Hamdan Temple in the southeastern part of the city, where sacrifices and offerings were offered to the Euphrates bank, and through the writings of Herodotus in the fourth century BC, it was confirmed that the Euphrates bank was fit for river navigation. "There was traffic for ships, transit trade, and the exchange of goods between Carchemish and Mary."
One of the most prominent sites on the bank of the Euphrates River is the archaeological mountain of Khaled, which was an observatory and fortress for the Greeks as they wrere engaged in battles with Persia at the Battle of Darius, the battle between Alexander the Great and Darius dating back to about 336 BC, the site contains a military barrack, and a role of worship, cemeteries, and accommodation for soldiers, worked by the Australian mission before 2011 AD. "
The archaeological citadel of Najm is considered one of the main castles of the city in the past. During the reign of Saladin, this fortress, which dates back to several old periods, was fortified with a Byzantine or Christian cemetery, which was fortified during the Crusades. On the right Euphrates bank, the only point from which Ali bin Abi Talib crossed during the battle of Sefin, and Marwan bin Mohammed last Umayyad caliph burned the bridge so as not Abbasids to catch him.
Why are the cemeteries outside the city wall? What is Antepi cemetery?
Archaeologist Abdul Wahab Shekho said: “Roman law prohibited burial inside the wall of the old city, so we see many burials outside the city wall in the four sides of the city, including in the northern district called Şengal squadron, and in the western neighborhood that extends from Manbij Secondary School to Al-Sabah Bahrat Roundabout, in addition to the perimeter of Euphrates Hospital, as well as the Southern Quarter, Al-Hazawneh District and the Eastern District, east of Nabi Yunus Cemetery.
The Directorate of Antiquities in Manbij and its countryside cleaned the tomb, conducted studies and research, and there are many burials in the eastern neighborhood.
What does the Syriac Church include?
The church contains niches and mosaic paintings, and among these paintings there was a religious painting inside which was written in the name of the cleric Krikos, who was secretly worshiped, and after the spread of Christianity, this church was adopted among the churches built by Constantine in the East.
While ISIS mercenaries were in Manbij, this church was unfairly bulldozed with heavy equipment. Among the encroachments on the western end were legendary mosaic paintings, describing the hunting epic of the pagan Roman period, the faces of the legendary painting were crushed. Several mosaic paintings were discovered in the vicinity of the basic painting.
What does Um Serj archeological castle consist of?
At the southern end of the city of Manbij lies the Um Serj archaeological castle, which was used by several civilizations, and contains facilities, cemeteries, and a wide hall at the eastern end of the city, and shops, which is one of the largest cities in the Middle East, and contains several civilizations from the Greek and Roman period, Um Sarj castle was used in the modern period by ISIS mercenaries where they sabotaged many of the archaeological facilities in that castle.
The city of Manbij has more than 200 archaeological sites
As for the archaeological sites in the city of Manbij, Abdul Wahab Shekho said: "One of the archaeological sites in the southern part of the city of Manbij is Dor Dada, which is a church with a rectangular shape on the top of a high mountain, dating back to the Byzantine period, and in the southeastern section of the city, there are several tombs carved inside the white limestone rock ".
The city also contains a web of cemeteries as well as rocky hill and Mount Sayada at the western end of the city, and there are many archaeological sites on the bank of Sajur including Tal al-Alkana, Tal al-Fursan, Tal Arab Hassan, and the site of Hawashriya where the Danish foreign missions, Jabal Khalid and many archaeological sites that have been classified by the Directorate of Antiquities in Manbij and its countryside and conduct research and studies.