ISIS and expansion from Iraq to Syria benefiting from the Turkish support
NEWS DESK/ HASAN RAMO
Abo Omar al-Bagdadi leader of the Islamic Iraq State and Abu Ayyub al-Masri being killed together in April 2010 in Iraq, Abu Baker al-Bagdadi took the command of ISIS despite the fact that he was not known, the American forces arrested and detained him for some time. In this part, we will talk about Abo Baker al-Bagdadi, Turkish support and ISIS expansion to Syria.
Who is Abo Baker al-Bagdadi?
His name is Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri al-Samura’I, he is born in 1971 in the Iraqi city of Samura’a, there, he studied Quranic Studies, then got his MA in 1999, and the doctorate in 2007.
During his post-graduate studies, his uncle persuaded him to join the Muslim Brotherhood, there, he joined those who adopt the violence approach in the Muslim Brotherhood.
Months after the American invasion of Iraq in 2003, al-Bagdadi contributed to establishing “Ahl al-Sunna and al-Jama’a”, but the American forces arrested him in February 2004 in al-Falluja city, and he was moved then to the Buka prison in the environs of Om Qasir and he stayed there for 10 months among pro-Sadam elements and terrorists where he made friends and communicated with after his release in 2004.
For the distinctive capabilities al-Bagdadi had, he quickly promoted within the Islamic State in Iraq, first he was appointed head of Sharia Committee, second, a member of Shura Council, third a member of Coordination Committee in Qaeda in Iraq which was supervising contact with the organization’s commanders in Iraq, Abu Omar al-Bagdadi killed, he was chosen a new emir by the Shura Council.
Bloody explosions targeting Yazidis and Shiites
Since the American intervention in Iraq in Spring 2003, the explosions began striking different Iraqi regions, Yazidis and Shiites’ in particular. Although the United States of America and the Iraqi security have launched countless campaigns against jihadists base in Iraq and later in the Islamic State, it could not take control of the security circumstances, where Iraq has been witnessing since then frequent explosions and assassinations, the most prominent are:
In August 2003, 83 mortalities have fallen including the Shiite clergyman muhamad Baqir al-Hakim in a bombed-car explosion in al-Najaf.
In March 2004, 170 persons were killed in simultaneous attacks in Karbulla’a and a mosque in Bagdad, and in February, 105 persons were killed in twin suicide attack that targeted leaders of the Kurdistan Democratic Party, and the Kurdistan National Union in Hewler during Eid al-Adha.
In February 2005, 118 persons were killed in a suicide explosion in al-Hilla, the biggest city of Babel governate, in August, 128 persons were killed in 11 attacks against Shiite neighborhoods in Bagdad.
In October 2006, 202 persons at least were killed in four bombed-cars and mortar bombings in al-Sader city.
While in 2007, more than 1,213 persons in several bombings were killed, the most violent of which is killing more than 400 persons in August in four trucks explosions that targeted Yazidis in Ninawa.
In August and October 2009, 259 persons were killed in four bomb-laden trucks explosions that targeted governmental headquarters in Bagdad including finance and foreign ministries.
The explosions scenario continued till ISIS took control of territories within Iraq and Syria.
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and moving to Syria
When Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi came to IS leadership, America believed that it had fully eliminated its threat after targeting most of the front row leaders in Iraq, in the light of information that there remain 700 dispersed elements who cannot communicate, even at that stage, IS leader said that they were not able to stand in one place for only a quarter of an hour because of the targeting of their places.
However, with the start of the so-called Arab Spring and its transfer to Syria, he found it a great opportunity to move to Syria, especially with the intervention of regional powers such as Turkey and Qatar and support for mercenary groups of the Muslim Brotherhood and other groups. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi sent orders to one of his activists in Syria to form a branch of al-Qaeda in Syria, later known as Jabhit al-Nusra and later developed into the Hayat Tahrir al-Sham Organization, which currently controls Idlib, where there are 12 Turkish observation posts.
The new organization quickly gained direct support from Turkey by buying oil and supplying it with weapons, allowing it to control some areas and interfere into other armed groups and expand its base, but ironically, the so-called Syrian opposition claimed that Jabhit al-Nusra represented the Syrian revolution, and that is not affiliated with al-Qaeda, and also described them as being forced under international pressure to classify them as terrorist organizations.
With the emergence of disagreements between Abu Muhammad al-Julani, the leader of Jabhit al-Nusra and Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the latter announced in April 9, 2013, and a voice message broadcast through the network "Shomouk Islam 56", the integration of Jabhit al-Nusra with the Islamic State of Iraq under the name of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, " Side by side, the two sides fought in many of the Syrian places, but al-Nusra went to the Syrian interior to expand in that region, while ISIS headed to the northern and eastern regions of Syria, and the two parties have not collided but rarely.
Taking control of Girê Spî/ Tel Abyad, parts of al-Ramadi and Fallujah
On the morning of July 21, 2013, the minarets of the mosques of Girê Spî/Tal Abyad asked the Kurds to leave the Syrian city on the border with Turkey, who was calling? ISIS mercenaries and Ahrar al-Sham which allied with it under Turkish orders after obtaining four truckloads of weapons from the Tel Abyad crossing, launching attack on Jabhit al-Akrad Brigade which was comprised under the free army then, and drove out all the Kurds from the city after the bombing of dozens of houses, and thus dominated the city, which has become the main crossing of Turkish support to IS.
Then, IS controlled the desert roads in both al-Raqqa and Deir ez-Zor to the Iraqi border and Anbar desert, and with IS control of Girê Spî, the path of support was open from Turkey to Iraqi territory, which allowed ISIS to attack other areas.
On December 31, 2013, ISIS entered and took control of Falluja on 4 January 2014 as well as large parts of Ramadi in the mostly Sunni Anbar province. He then began to control remote rural areas of Syria and Iraq.
Tomorrow: Regional, international parties are involved in ISIS expansion