Syria 2020 ..A year began with escalation, continued to exacerbate living, political crises

Since the beginning of the year 2020, Syria has witnessed a military escalation between the Damascus government and the Turkish occupation, while Russia continued its policy of concluding deals at the expense of the Syrian people, and the economic crisis in the country worsened due to the US sanctions: "Caesar Act".

The most prominent event on the 2020 scene was the escalation in the so-called "De-Escalation Zone" and the killing of the Turkish occupation soldiers, in addition to the aggravation of the living and economic crisis in the areas of the Damascus government, and Turkish occupation’ withdrawal from points in the countryside of Idlib, Aleppo and Hama.

Damascus and Turkish occupation escalate

January 2 - 2020 began with a major escalation in Syria, and the first military reinforcements of the Damascus government forces began to gradually reach the city of Aleppo.

- The White House said that US President Donald Trump and his Turkish counterpart Recep Tayyip Erdogan agreed on the need to cease escalation and reduce tension in Idlib.

January 4 - Damascus government forces announced their control of the town of Al-Tah in Idlib countryside, while they began targeting Turkish mercenaries on the axes of the countryside of Aleppo, Saraqib and Maarat al-Numan.

January 5 - The air force of the Damascus government forces launched raids on Turkish mercenary sites in the countryside of Aleppo and Idlib, in preparation for opening new routes in the countryside of Aleppo towards the international road, and in the countryside of Idlib towards Saraqib and Maarat al-Numan.

January 7 - Putin wanders with Assad in Damascus, visits the Umayyad Mosque and the Mariamite Cathedral of Damascus.

January 9 - The Russian Foreign Ministry said that according to the agreements reached with the Turkish side, the ceasefire system was in place in the "De-Escalation Zone” in Idlib, starting at 14:00.

January 10 - The UN Security Council adopted a resolution submitted by Belgium and Germany to extend the mechanism for the entry of humanitarian aid into Syria for a period of six months, and the decision allows the entry of this aid through two border ports instead of four, as the Tal Koçer / Al-Yarubiyah and Al-Tanf crossings were closed, while the ports with the Turkish occupation were open after a Russian veto.

January 11 - The warplanes of the Damascus government forces targeted the lines and positions of Turkish mercenaries along the seam lines in the southeastern countryside of Idlib, with a series of air strikes.

January 12 - A Syrian newspaper revealed that the Damascus government forces had brought huge military reinforcements to the front lines on the western fronts from the city of Aleppo and the southern countryside of the governorate.

- Mercenary groups in Idlib targeted several residential neighborhoods in the city of Aleppo and Hama countryside, in an early violation of the ceasefire decision.

Helicopters of the Damascus government forces dropped clippings over the Idlib and Aleppo countryside urging civilians residing in the areas controlled by Jabhet Al-Nusra and other terrorist organizations to head towards what they called “humanitarian corridors” to move to their areas of control.

“Intelligence meeting between Damascus and Ankara in Russia”

January 13 - A tripartite meeting was held in Moscow, bringing together the head of intelligence in the Damascus government, Major General Ali Mamlouk, and the head of the Turkish intelligence service Hakan Fidan.

January 14 - "Dollar in the Black Market" exceeds the 1,000 S.P. threshold.

- "SANA" agency, the government spokesman, reported that the air defenses had confronted "aggression" targeting the T-4 military airport in the eastern countryside of Homs.

January 15 - Israeli Defense Minister Naftali Bennett instructed the military establishment to work to get the Iranians out of Syria.

Damascus government forces have resumed their military operation south of Idlib, and have taken control of new sites.

“Damascus forces continued the attack and surrounded the Turkish occupation’s points”

January 19 - The Russian Ministry of Defense announced, "The militants tried to launch an attack on the Hmeimim base with drones, confirming that the planes were shot down without any losses at the base."

January 24 - Government forces took control of the town of "Al-Deir Al-Sharqi", close to the city of Maarat Al-Numan up to 4 km to the east, and opened a new axis for their operations in the east of the governorate, taking over the town of "Kursan", in addition to taking control of the strategic town of Maarashmarin.

January 25- The government forces managed to take control of the strategic town of "Talmans" located on the outskirts of the eastern farms of the city of Maarat al-Nu'man in the southeastern countryside of Idlib, and they also managed to take control of the town of Maarshamsha, east of the city of Maarat al-Numan.

January 26- Government forces took control of Wadi al-Deif in the southern countryside of Idlib, in addition to Maar Shurin, southeast of Idlib, and began encircling Maarat al-Numan and the towns of Babila and Dana al-Maarrah.

January 28 - Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov affirmed that his country would not tolerate terrorists in Idlib.

- Turkish media reported that Turkey sent military reinforcements to the Turkish-Syrian border.

Damascus government forces have taken control of Maarat al-Numan, the second largest city in Idlib Governorate.

January 29 - The President of the Turkish occupation state, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, called for a halt to the operations of the Damascus government forces in Idlib governorate, and accused Russia of not adhering to the Sochi and Astana agreements on Idlib.

Government forces expand their control north of Maarat al-Numan towards the city of Saraqib.

- The government forces continued their advance on the western and southwestern axes of Aleppo, where they managed to control Al-Rashideen neighborhood, so that the nearby "Turkish point" became encircled, as well as the strategic town of Maardabsa, continuing its advance towards the city of Saraqib.

February 3 - The Turkish Ministry of Defense announced that four Turkish soldiers were killed and nine others were wounded due to shelling of the Damascus government forces in Idlib.

- The President of the Turkish occupation state, Erdogan, announced that F-16 fighters, as well as artillery crews, attacked 40 targets in Idlib, in response to the shelling of the Turkish forces.

- The Turkish Occupation Defense Ministry announced that the death toll from Idlib attacks has risen to six soldiers.

- The Iranian Assistant Minister of Roads and Urban Building, Mahmoud Mahmoud Zadeh, announced that his country, according to a bilateral memorandum of understanding, would build more than 30,000 housing units in Syria.

- The government forces took control of one of the sections of the international highway "Aleppo-Lattakia" after they took control of the town of Neirab, west of the city of Saraqib in the eastern countryside of Idlib.

February 4 - The President of the Turkish occupation state, Erdogan, declared, "What happened in Idlib is a flagrant violation of the understanding reached with Russia, and it will have consequences for the Syrian regime."

The government forces took control of the capital of the Kingdom of Ebla and knocked on the southern gates of Saraqib.

- Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said: Russia calls on Turkey to strictly implement the Sochi agreements on Idlib, and added: "There are hundreds of mercenaries from the" De-Escalation Zone "in Syria's Idlib who are moving to Libya to participate in hostilities.

February 5 - The President of the Turkish occupation state, Erdogan, has given the Syrian army a deadline until the end of February to withdraw behind the Turkish observation points, threatening to launch a “military operation in Idlib and force the Syrian army to retreat.”

Government forces control Jazraya and Zammar in the southern countryside of Aleppo.

The United States stops an intelligence program with Turkey, due to its incursion into Syria.

- Damascus government forces fully apply the Turkish "observation" point in "Tal Touqan" east of Idlib.

February 6 - Damascus announces that the Turkish occupation forces violate the Syrian border, coinciding with an Israeli attack.

- Damascus government forces officially announced the entry of the city of Saraqib in Idlib countryside.

February 8 - Government forces seize the sixth Turkish post after taking control of the town of Al-Eis.

- The Damascus government forces announced that units advancing from the southern countryside of Aleppo have converged with the forces operating on the eastern Idlib countryside.

- Government forces took control of the two towns of Icarda and Al-Kusaybah along the international road (Aleppo-Damascus / M5).

- The Turkish foreign ministry announced, through its representative, that Russia and Turkey discussed during the talks that took place in Ankara the situation in Idlib, and the necessary steps to strengthen the political process in Syria.

February 10 - Government forces took control of the towns of Miznaz and Kafr Halab, southeast of Al-Atareb, bypassing the highway (60) connecting the cities of Idlib and Aleppo.

Turkey announces the killing of 5 soldiers and the wounding of 5 others by the fire of the Damascus government forces.

- The Turkish Occupation Defense Ministry announced shooting down a helicopter belonging to the Damascus government forces, in response to the bombing of its sites in Idlib.

Turkey announces shelling more than 100 targets of the Damascus government forces in Idlib.

February 11 - The President of the Turkish occupation state, Erdogan, said that the Damascus government would pay a heavy price for its attack on the Turkish soldiers in Idlib.

- Damascus government forces control the suburb of "Al-Rashideen" and " Al-Assad Forest" and Jamiyet Alsahafiyeen neighborhood, west of Aleppo.

Government forces took full control of the "M5" highway linking the city of Aleppo with the capital, Damascus, for the first time since 2012.

February 14 - Damascus government forces took control of “Orm Al-Kubra” in the countryside of Aleppo.

February 15 - The President of the Turkish occupation state, Erdogan, said that Turkey would deal with Damascus forces if they did not withdraw from Idlib before the end of February.

March 1 - Turkish Defense Minister Hulusi Akar announced that his country had begun Spring Shield Operation against Damascus government forces in Idlib governorate.

March 5 - Russian President Vladimir Putin and Turkish President Erdogan signed in Moscow the ceasefire agreement in Idlib, which also included the establishment of a security corridor on the M4 road and the conduct of joint patrols.

“Corona virus spread through Syria”

March 27 - The Damascus government announced a comprehensive curfew on movement between Syrian cities to prevent the spread of the Coronavirus.

- For the first time in years ... phone talks between Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed and Bashar al-Assad.

March 29 - The Damascus government announced the first death case due to the Coronavirus.

April 1 - The Damascus government isolated the town of Minin in the countryside of Damascus, after the Corona virus spread there.

“US puts the Caesar Act into force; Russia and Iran share Syrian facilities”

- June 17 - The "Caesar Act" of sanctions, which includes US sanctions targeting governments, companies, or individuals who indirectly finance the Damascus government or contribute to its military campaigns, has entered into force.

July 8 - Iran and the Damascus government signed an agreement to enhance military cooperation, including the development of air defense systems, as Israel targeted Iranian military sites inside Syria.

July 11 - The Iranian authorities announced the killing of a senior officer in the Iranian Revolutionary Guard, "Ibrahim Asmi", in Syria.

July 14 - The Ministry of Economy in the Damascus government announced its intention to conduct a public auction to occupy, equip and invest all free markets in the country, according to a book of conditions of free market investment.

July 20 - Air defenses confronted enemy missiles in the sky of the southern countryside of Damascus, which were directed at the Sahnaya area in the countryside of the capital.

July 24 - Israeli military helicopters bombed several targets in the Quneitra region inside Syria belonging to the government forces, in response to fire from the Syrian side of the ceasefire line in the Golan.

July 29 - The US Treasury Department announced imposition of new sanctions on the Damascus government targeting individuals and entities, and warned Middle East investors against dealing with Damascus, and the package targeted Hafez, the son of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, and the Division 1st of the government forces.

- The Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad received the special envoy of Russian President Vladimir Putin to Syria, Alexander Lavrentiev, the Russian Deputy Foreign Minister, Sergey Vershinin, and the accompanying delegation.

August 3 - Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced that the Israeli army had thwarted an attempt to carry out an operation on the Damascus front, and that Israel would strike anyone who tried to attack it.

August 13 - An unknown aircraft targeted the convoy of the terrorist deputy Emir of the mercenaries, Abu Yahya Al-Uzbeki, while he was traveling in Idlib countryside in northwestern Syria, killing him instantly.

- The Commander-in-Chief of the US Central Command, Gen. Kenneth McKenzie, announced that his country "intends to reduce its forces in Iraq and Syria in the coming months, in exchange for maintaining a long-term presence."

August 19 - The Damascus government granted Russia a piece of land and marine space in Latakia governorate, on which the latter will establish a health center for the Russian army.

August 24 - The government of Damascus condemned cutting off water to Hasakah and accused Turkey of committing a "war crime."

- Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad assigned Hussein Arnous to form a new government, after the parliamentary elections held last July.

- The Russian Reconciliation Center operating in Syria announced that a Russian-Turkish patrol in Idlib came under fire from a grenade launcher, which resulted in light concussions of two Russian soldiers in the brain.

August 29 - The third round of discussions of the "Damascus Constitutional Committee" concluded in Geneva after several discussion sessions over the past three days, without reaching any results.

August 31 - SANA, quoting a military source, reported that two government forces soldiers were killed and 7 others wounded in Israeli raids on military sites south of Damascus.

September 6 - Fires engulf Syria's forests and agricultural plains.

September 7 - A high-level Russian delegation holds consultations with the Damascus government.

“Russian-Turkish barter efforts”

September 9 - The warplanes of the Damascus government forces carried out four airstrikes on the western outskirts of Idlib city, targeting one of the headquarters of "Hayat Tahrir al-Sham" mercenaries: the current front of the terrorist "Jabhet Al-Nusra" organization, killing 11 leaders.

September 17 - Unidentified persons targeted the car of a commander in the Russian-backed "Fifth Corps" forces in southern Syria, followed by a state of tension and escalation.

- An informed Turkish source revealed that the Turkish and Russian military delegations, during their meeting at the headquarters of the Turkish Ministry of Defense in Ankara, did not reach any understanding regarding the situation in Idlib, as Turkey did not respond to the demands of the Russian side to withdraw from the "Observation Points" in Idlib governorate, northern Syria, proposing to hand it over to my city Tal Rifaat and Manbij, which did not receive a positive response from the Russian side.

September 19 - The US Army announced consolidating its military presence in northeastern Syria, with the deployment of Sentinel radar and Bradley fighting vehicles.

September 30 - The US Treasury Department announced imposing new sanctions on Syria, including 3 persons and 13 entities, including the Ministry of Tourism in the Damascus government.

October 20 - The Turkish occupation army evacuated a post near the city of Morek in the northern Hama countryside.

“Bread, fuel, livelihood crises afflicting government areas”

October 20 - The Damascus government raised the price of a liter of subsidized premium gasoline to 450 pounds and un-subsidized gasoline to 650 pounds, up from 250 and 450 pounds, respectively.

October 29 - The Damascus government doubled the price of bread to 100 pounds, while the price of a ton of flour rose to 40 thousand Syrian pounds.

November 7 - The Turkish occupation forces withdrew from the Observation Post 11th in the village of "Shar Maghar" in the countryside of Hama, towards the Turkish bases in the Jabal Al-Zawiya area in the southern countryside of Idlib.

November 11 - A conference for Syrian refugees, sponsored by Russia, was held in the capital, Damascus, amid weak Arab and Western participation.

November 15 – The situation in the capital, Damascus, its countryside, and the rest of the governorates under the control of the Damascus government worsened: the crisis of bread shortage emerged, while the authorities were unable to find solutions to the stifling crisis, which is the most severe in the history of Syria.

November 16 - The death of Walid al-Muallem, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Damascus government.

November 17 - The transportation crisis in Damascus and its countryside has exacerbated in an unprecedented way during official work days due to the lack of government and private transportation means, as a result of the fuel shortage that the government-controlled areas suffer from and its price rose as well; consequently, the burden of living for citizens become heavier and heavier.

December 4 - The fourth round of the so-called Constitutional Committee meetings concluded in Geneva without noticeable progress.



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