12 years after the start of the Syrian crisis, the country is still mired in political, military, economic and living crises without succeeding in paving the way for a permanent solution that ends the crises it suffers from. What are the most important aspects of the military option to the crisis?
Internal and external factors overlapped to perpetuate the existing crisis, from the ruling authority's adherence to oppressive and exclusionary intellectual solutions to the transformation of the so-called "Syrian opposition" groups moving in accordance with Turkish occupation instructions in addition to the fact that, over time, they were fighting among themselves.
Perhaps the most prominent of the failures of the solutions imposed by the ruling authority in Damascus; It is the continuation of chaos and fighting in most of the areas declared to be under control or conducting so-called "settlements", in conjunction with the return of protests to many areas, notably Suwayda and Dara’a. The most significant picture of the failure of the so-called "Syrian opposition" is the fighting between them, along with the initiation of the rapprochement between the Government of Damascus and the Turkish occupation, which will end with the sale of its tools
But despite the crises and failures during the years of the Syrian crisis, there are hopeful and optimistic images from North and East Syria; The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria AANES, despite the mutilation campaigns, has been transformed into an attraction for various Syrians and the world to eliminate this administration.
In this two-part report, we will briefly summarize the course of the Syrian crisis, from its inception in 2011 until its 13 year.
As the winds of the so-called "Arab Spring" set off, Syrians were watching the development of events and popular movements in Tunisia and Egypt to launch their popular movement on 15 March 2011, starting from Dara'a in the south of Syria, where the incident was the repressive and arbitrary response of security forces to the incident, spark ignited this incident that has been repressed for more than 40 years, However, it turned into an unfinished civil war even though it is in its 13th year.
These demonstrations quickly expanded, with the city of Homs and rural Damascus witnessing massive demonstrations that were violently confronted by Damascus government forces; The Syrian movement entered a bloody new phase, following the entry of Damascus government forces into Homs and the further casualties.
Violence has escalated… Damascus resorts to military settlement option but
At the beginning of 2012, the Arab League entered to resolve the crisis and submitted an initiative; Includes the formation of a national government, with Bashar al-Assad subsequently handing over his full powers to his deputy, in cooperation with this government, but this has been rejected by the Government of Damascus; This has led to an increase in the level of violence.
In March of the same year, the Government of Damascus directed its military arsenal at Homs and attacked and declared control of the Baba Amro neighbourhood after nearly 26 days of intense fighting, while the so-called "Free Syrian Army" commander, Riad al-Assad, declared that "his soldiers had carried out a tactical withdrawal from the neighbourhood after the destruction had been resolved and many victims had fallen.”
In July, the Syrian crisis took another turn after Damascus Government Television announced the deaths of Defence Minister Dawood Rajeh and his deputy, Asif Shawkat, and Hassan Turkmani, Deputy Bashar al-Assad's aide, in a bombing of the "Syrian National Security" building in the Rawda neighbourhood of Damascus.
Increased flow of mercenaries across Turkey's border
With the absence of political solutions and greater recourse by the parties to fighting and war, there has been increased external support, especially by Turkey, for armed groups. The number of mercenary groups and foreign mercenaries who have flocked from various States and entered across Turkey's borders into Syrian territory has also grown considerably.
In May of the same year, after 18 days of heavy fighting, Damascus government forces and Hezbullah elements took control of the strategic city of Qusayr in rural Homs.
August saw one of the most painful chapters of the Syrian crisis, with hundreds of victims from Eastern Ghouta after inhaling toxic gases from a nerve agent attack, three days after the international inspectors' mission arrived in Damascus.
Despite the armed groups' progress towards the Government of Damascus and their entry into many cities, Damascus changed its strategy and plans; To escape attrition, focusing its control on the strategic cities of importance called "beneficial Syria", but Iranian support and the dispatch of Shia groups, including Lebanese Hezbullah, as well as the growth of mercenary groups such as the Jabhet al-Nusra and ISIS/ Daesh, have placed an additional burden on the movement in Syria; that made the situation more nebulously.
Turkey opened its airports to receive mercenaries from all over the world and facilitated their transit into Syrian territory, transformed its borders into crossings from which arms flow to mercenaries in Syria, and provided all forms of material, moral and medical support to them. Iran mobilized the Shia wherever they were, sending them to Syria to fight alongside the Government of Iran.
ISIS/ Daesh emerged
With the rise of foreign mercenaries from all parts of the world and the use of sectarian and national hatred in the region as a means of recruiting militants, ISIS mercenaries occupied large areas of Syria and Iraq in the summer of 2014, occupying in early June the Iraqi city of Mosul, and in the same month the city of Raqqa and declaring it the capital of his alleged succession 29 June.
ISIS/Daesh also occupied the vast majority of Deir ez-Zor, in addition to its presence in Aleppo, Idlib, Hama, rural Damascus and a number of other Syrian areas, thus occupying nearly half of Syria's area.
Damascus forces collapse and Russia intervenes
In 2014, the Government of Damascus forces witnessed a major collapse, with mercenary groups, especially the Jabhet al-Nusra, occupying large areas of Aleppo, Idlib, Hama, Dar 'a, Homs and Quneitra. The presence of Damascus government forces was confined to the main cities only.
As a result of this deterioration and despite Iranian support and the arrival of armed groups in the centre of the capital, Damascus, and their proximity to the Republican Palace, Russia intervened and signed an agreement with Damascus, August 2015, granting the right to Russian military forces to use the Hmeimim base at all times free of charge.
Amid the collapse and going towards the unknown... Community Organization in North and East Syria
In conjunction with the collapse of the Government of Damascus forces, their withdrawal from Syrian areas and their abandonment of the people to face their inevitable fate in front of mercenaries, especially ISIS and the Jabhet al-Nusra, the (YPG_YPJ) have taken responsibility to repel the attacks; The mission of preserving the three Autonomous-Administration cantons announced in Rojava, January 2014, in Jazira, Afrin and Kobani, to expand this administration and include areas of North and East Syria.
“AA” worked to apply the theory of a democratic nation and people's brotherhood by bringing together all the components of the region and promoting civil peace. It also managed to preserve and develop vital Syrian installations through the formation of civil institutions that relied on the application of the community economy and the provision of basic services to citizens. It also strengthened the role of women through the application of the system of co- chairmanship of each institution and body.
AANES worked hard to develop its institutions and structure constantly ", where it is close to finalizing the drafting of a new social contract suited to the developments of the phase, However, the administration faces many challenges, most notably the blockade imposed on it by all the surrounding parties, such as the Kurdistan Democratic Party (PDK), the Government of Damascus and the Turkish occupation, who are fighting the AANES project and view with concern the success of this experiment, especially as it is beginning to hesitate in other Syrian regions.
US forces officially in Syria
Since the beginning of the Syrian crisis, the United States of America has searched for Syrian armed groups and tested some armed groups. On 4 March, a group of 50 people, supplied with all types of modern weapons, arrived from the 51st Brigade after receiving training under the United States training programme. "Armed opposition" to Syria, through the Bab al-Salama crossing in the city of Azaz, and in a few days the members of this group were killed, while others fled and surrendered to ISIS mercenaries with their weapons.
However, the US administration was monitoring the merit of YPG –YPJ fighters in fighting against ISIS. So, after the announcement of the formation of the Global coalition to Defest ISIS in 2014, the forces of the international coalition were compelled; To provide aerial support to the YPG -YPJ, especially at the Battle of Kobani, September 2014, to continue until the announcement of the formation of the SDF and to date.
The SDF liberated all of North and East Syria from ISIS and the most prominent areas liberated; Manbij, Raqqa and Deir ez-Zor are all the way to Baghouz. It was announced that ISIS's “caliphate" would be eliminated.