The negotiations were scheduled to take place this month, but were postponed until early next month after countries exchanged new tariffs on September 1.
China's top negotiator, Liu He, met with US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin, the ministry said in a brief statement.
"The two sides agreed to hold the 13th round of high-level economic and trade consultations between China and the United States in Washington in early October and maintain close contact," the statement said.
At the last round of bilateral negotiations hosted by Shanghai in late July, the two countries agreed to meet again in September in the United States, without announcing the exact date of the meeting.
US President Donald Trump on Tuesday warned China not to stall in trade negotiations and bet that he would not be re-elected in 2020.
Since last year, China and the United States have been engaged in a trade showdown with customs duties on goods worth more than $ 360 billion in annual trade.
At the G-20 summit in Osaka, US President Donald Trump and his Chinese counterpart Xi Jinping agreed to relaunch trade negotiations.
On August 23, Beijing responded by announcing retaliatory duties on annual US imports of $ 75 billion, effective from September 1.
In response, the administration decided to raise the fees it announced in early August from 10 to 15 percent.